The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesIHC-P: 1/100 - 1/500. Epitope exposure with citrate buffer or tris-EDTA pH9 buffer will enhance staining. Extended incubation with primary antibody (16-24 hours) at room temperature is recommended.
Likely to work with frozen sections.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionActs as a transcriptional factor. Specifically binds the insulin enhancer element RIPE3b and activates insulin gene expression. Cooperates synergistically with NEUROD1 and PDX1. Phosphorylation by GSK3 increases its transcriptional activity and is required for its oncogenic activity. Involved either as an oncogene or as a tumor suppressor, depending on the cell context.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the bZIP family. Maf subfamily. Contains 1 bZIP domain.
Post-translational modificationsUbiquitinated, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Ser-14 and Ser-65 appear to be the major phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylated by MAPK13 on serine and threonine residues (Probable). Phosphorylation by GSK3 requires prior phosphorylation of Ser-65 by another kinase. Phosphorylation proceeds then from Ser-61 to Thr-57, Thr-53 and Ser-49. GSK3-mediated phosphorylation increases its transcriptional activity through the recruitment of the coactivator PCAF, is required for its transforming activity and leads to its degradation through an ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Detected in nuclei of pancreas islet beta cells.