The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/2000 - 1/10000. Detects a band of approximately 50 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 44 kDa).
FunctionDual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of the MAPK/ERK cascade is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a nuclear receptor that promotes differentiation and apoptosis. MAP2K1/MEK1 has been shown to export PPARG from the nucleus. The MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC), as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis.
Tissue specificityWidely expressed, with extremely low levels in brain.
Involvement in diseaseCardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 3
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase kinase subfamily. Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
DomainThe proline-rich region localized between residues 270 and 307 is important for binding to RAF1 and activation of MAP2K1/MEK1.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylation at Ser-218 and Ser-222 by MAP kinase kinase kinases (RAF or MEKK1) positively regulates kinase activity. Also phosphorylated at Thr-292 by MAPK1/ERK2 and at Ser-298 by PAK. MAPK1/ERK2 phosphorylation of Thr-292 occurs in response to cellular adhesion and leads to inhibition of Ser-298 phosphorylation by PAK. Acetylation by Yersinia yopJ prevents phosphorylation and activation, thus blocking the MAPK signaling pathway.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, spindle pole body. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Localizes at centrosomes during prometaphase, midzone during anaphase and midbody during telophase/cytokinesis.