FunctionHistone methyltransferase that specifically mono- and dimethylates 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2). H3 'Lys-4' methylation represents a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation. Key regulator of hematopoiesis involved in terminal myeloid differentiation and in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) self-renewal by a mechanism that involves DNA methylation. Plays an essential role in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis by acting as a coactivator of RAR-alpha (RARA) in target gene promoters. Also acts as an important cell cycle regulator, participating in cell cycle regulatory network machinery at multiple cell cycle stages. Required to suppress inappropriate expression of S-phase-promoting genes and maintain expression of determination genes in quiescent cells. Overexpression inhibits cell cycle progression, while knockdown induces cell cycle arrest at both the G1 and G2/M phases.
Tissue specificityWidely expressed in both adult and fetal tissues. Highest levels of expression observed in fetal thymus and kidney and in adult hematopoietic tissues, jejunum and cerebellum.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the histone-lysine methyltransferase family. TRX/MLL subfamily. Contains 1 PHD-type zinc finger. Contains 1 SET domain.
Post-translational modificationsO-glycosylation at Thr-440 in the SET domain by OGT is essential for the histone methyltransferase and the coactivator activity toward RARA in granulopoiesis. The absence of Thr-440 glycosylation in assays done in vitro may explain why some authors did not detected any histone methyltransferase activity for this protein.
Cellular localizationNucleus speckle. Absent from the nucleolus.