Purification notesPurified by affinity chromatography using an epitope specific phosphopeptide. The antibody against the non-phosphopeptide was removed by chromatography using a non-phosphopeptide corresponding to the phosphorylation site.
FunctionSerine/threonine kinase required for the mitogen or stress-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factors CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) and ATF1 (activating transcription factor-1). Essential role in the control of RELA transcriptional activity in response to TNF. Directly represses transcription via phosphorylation of 'Ser-1' of histone H2A. Phosphorylates 'Ser-10' of histone H3 in response to mitogenics, stress stimuli and epidemal growth-factor (EGF), which results in the transcriptional activation of several immediate early genes, including proto-oncogenes c-fos/FOS and c-jun/JUN. May also phosphorylate 'Ser-28' of histone H3. Mediates the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of high mobility group protein 14 (HMG-14).
Tissue specificityWidely expressed with high levels in heart, brain and placenta. Less abundant in lung, kidney and liver.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. S6 kinase subfamily. Contains 1 AGC-kinase C-terminal domain. Contains 2 protein kinase domains.
Post-translational modificationsSer-376 and Thr-581 phosphorylation is required for kinase activity. Ser-376 and Ser-212 are autophosphorylated by the C-terminal kinase domain, and their phosphorylation is essential for the catalytic activity of the N-terminal kinase domain.