Constitutive NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide intracellularly upon formation of a complex with CYBA/p22phox. Regulates signaling cascades probably through phosphatases inhibition. May function as an oxygen sensor regulating the KCNK3/TASK-1 potassium channel and HIF1A activity. May regulate insulin signaling cascade. May play a role in apoptosis, bone resorption and lipolysaccharide-mediated activation of NFKB. May produce superoxide in the nucleus and play a role in regulating gene expression upon cell stimulation. Isoform 3 is not functional. Isoform 4 displays an increased activity. Isoform 5 and isoform 6 display reduced activity.
Expressed by distal tubular cells in kidney cortex and in endothelial cells (at protein level). Widely expressed. Strongly expressed in kidney and to a lower extent in heart, adipocytes, hepatoma, endothelial cells, skeletal muscle, brain, several brain tumor cell lines and airway epithelial cells.
Isoform 3 and isoform 4 are N-glycosylated. Isoform 4 glycosylation is required for its proper function.
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Cell membrane. Cell junction > focal adhesion. Nucleus. May localize to plasma membrane and focal adhesions. According to PubMed:15927447, may also localize to the nucleus.