All tags neuroscience Astrocyte markers

Astrocyte markers

A guide to the choosing the best astrocyte markers.

Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells and serve a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, which are vital for brain development, physiology and pathology.

GFAP

An intermediate filament and major component of the astrocyte cytoskeleton.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with  anti-GFAP (ab7260).

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EAAT1/GLAST

An astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter.

Zebrafish retina tissue sections stained with anti-EAAT1 (green) (ab416).

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Selective  EAAT1 inhibitors: UCPH-101 (ab120309) and UCPH-102 (ab146404)


EAAT2/GLT-1

An astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-EAAT2 (green) (ab41621).

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Selective EAAT2 inhibitor: Dihydrokainic acid (ab120066)
Stimulator of EAAT2 expression: Ceftriaxone (ab120871)

Potent and competitive EAAT1-4 inhibitors: L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid (ab146130) and L-trans-Pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (ab146131)



Glutamine synthetase

An enzyme involved in the metabolism of nitrogen. In the brain it is primarily found in astrocytes.

Rat brain tissue sections stained with anti-glutamine synthetase (ab73593).

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S100 beta

A calcium binding protein, also found in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) Double labeling with NG2 will distinguish the OPCs from the astrocytes.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with  anti-S100 beta (ab52642).

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ALDH1L1

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, NADP+ and water to tetrahydrofolate, NADPH and CO2.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-ALDH1L1 (red) (ab87117).

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References

  • Abrahamsen, B. et al. Allosteric modulation of an excitatory amino acid transporter: the subtype-selective inhibitor UCPH-101 exerts sustained inhibition of EAAT1 through an intramonomeric site in the trimerization domain. J. Neurosci. 33, 1068–87 (2013).
  • Cahoy, J. D. et al. A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function. J. Neurosci. 28, 264–78 (2008).
  • Dimou, L. & Götz, M. Glial Cells as Progenitors and Stem Cells: New Roles in the Healthy and Diseased Brain. Physiol. Rev. 94, 709–737 (2014).
  • Kriegstein, A. R. & Götz, M. Radial glia diversity: A matter of cell fate. Glia 43, 37–43 (2003).
  • Lee, S.-G. et al. Mechanism of ceftriaxone induction of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 expression and glutamate uptake in primary human astrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 13116–23 (2008).
  • Medrano, M. C., Gerrikagoitia, I., Martínez-Millán, L., Mendiguren, A. & Pineda, J. Functional and morphological characterization of glutamate transporters in the rat locus coeruleus. Br. J. Pharmacol. 169, 1781–94 (2013).
  • Shigeri, Y. et al. Effects of threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives on excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT4 and EAAT5). J. Neurochem. 79, 297–302 (2008).

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