May function as an inducer of apoptosis. Interacts selectively with ASC and this complex may function as an upstream activator of NF-kappa-B signaling. Inhibits TNF-alpha induced activation and nuclear translocation of RELA/NF-KB p65. Also inhibits transcriptional activity of RELA. Activates caspase-1 in response to a number of triggers including bacterial or viral infection which leads to processing and release of IL1B and IL18.
Expressed in blood leukocytes. Strongly expressed in polymorphonuclear cells and osteoblasts. Undetectable or expressed at a lower magnitude in B- and T-lymphoblasts, respectively. High level of expression detected in chondrocytes. Detected in non-keratinizing epithelia of oropharynx, esophagus and ectocervix and in the urothelial layer of the bladder.
Involvement in disease
Defects in NLRP3 are the cause of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome type 1 (FCAS1) [MIM:120100]; also known as familial cold urticaria. FCAS are rare autosomal dominant systemic inflammatory diseases characterized by episodes of rash, arthralgia, fever and conjunctivitis after generalized exposure to cold. Defects in NLRP3 are a cause of Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS) [MIM:191900]; also known as urticaria-deafness-amyloidosis syndrome. MWS is a hereditary periodic fever syndrome characterized by fever, chronic recurrent urticaria, arthralgias, progressive sensorineural deafness, and reactive renal amyloidosis. The disease may be severe if generalized amyloidosis occurs. Defects in NLRP3 are the cause of chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular syndrome (CINCA) [MIM:607115]; also known as neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID). CINCA is a rare congenital inflammatory disorder characterized by a triad of neonatal onset of cutaneous symptoms, chronic meningitis and joint manifestations with recurrent fever and inflammation.
Belongs to the NLRP family. Contains 1 DAPIN domain. Contains 9 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats. Contains 1 NACHT domain.
Cao S et al. Melatonin-mediated mitophagy protects against early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Sci Rep7:2417 (2017).
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