The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesReactive with AK from diverse tissue sources by Western Blotting. Used at 1:100 with cell extracts.
Other immunodetection procedures not tested.
FunctionThe activated kinase acts on a variety of targets. Phosphorylates ribosomal protein S6, histone H4 and myelin basic protein. Full length PAK 2 stimulates cell survival and cell growth. The process is, at least in part, mediated by phosphorylation and inhibition of pro-apoptotic BAD. Caspase-activated PAK-2p34 is involved in cell death response, probably involving the JNK signaling pathway. Cleaved PAK-2p34 seems to have a higher activity than the CDC42-activated form.
Tissue specificityUbiquitously expressed. Higher levels seen in skeletal muscle, ovary, thymus and spleen.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. STE20 subfamily. Contains 1 CRIB domain. Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Post-translational modificationsFull length PAK 2 is autophosphorylated when activated by CDC42/p21. Following cleavage, both peptides, PAK-2p27 and PAK-2p34, become highly autophosphorylated, with PAK-2p27 being phosphorylated on serine and PAK-2p34 on threonine residues, respectively. Autophosphorylation of PAK-2p27 can occur in the absence of any effectors and is dependent on phosphorylation of Thr-402, because PAK-2p27 is acting as an exogenous substrate. During apoptosis proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 or caspase-3-like proteases to yield active PAK-2p34. Ubiquitinated, leading to its proteasomal degradation. PAK-2p34 is myristoylated.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm and Nucleus. Cytoplasm > perinuclear region. Membrane. Interaction with ARHGAP10 probably changes PAK-2p34 location to cytoplasmic perinuclear region. Myristoylation changes PAK-2p34 location to the membrane.