The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesIHC-P: Ready-to-use for 30 min at RT. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol, by boiling tissue sections in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0 for 10 min, followed by cooling at RT for 20 min.
FunctionProtects cells against oxidative stress and cell death. Plays a role in regulating expression or stability of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins SLC25A14 and SLC25A27 in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and attenuates the oxidative stress induced by calcium entry into the neurons via L-type channels during pacemaking. Eliminates hydrogen peroxide and protects cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death. May act as an atypical peroxiredoxin-like peroxidase that scavenges hydrogen peroxide. Following removal of a C-terminal peptide, displays protease activity and enhanced cytoprotective action against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Stabilizes NFE2L2 by preventing its association with KEAP1 and its subsequent ubiquitination. Binds to OTUD7B and inhibits its deubiquitinating activity. Enhances RELA nuclear translocation. Binds to a number of mRNAs containing multiple copies of GG or CC motifs and partially inhibits their translation but dissociates following oxidative stress. Required for correct mitochondrial morphology and function and for autophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria. Regulates astrocyte inflammatory responses. Acts as a positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Prevents aggregation of SNCA. Plays a role in fertilization. Has no proteolytic activity. Has cell-growth promoting activity and transforming activity. May function as a redox-sensitive chaperone.
Tissue specificityHighly expressed in pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, testis and heart. Detected at slightly lower levels in placenta and brain. Detected in astrocytes, Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatids and spermatozoa.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in PARK7 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 7 (PARK7) [MIM:606324]. A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, postural tremor, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, anxiety and psychotic episodes. PARK7 has onset before 40 years, slow progression and initial good response to levodopa. Some patients may show traits reminiscent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex (Guam disease).
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the peptidase C56 family.
Post-translational modificationsSumoylated on Lys-130 by PIAS2 or PIAS4; which is enhanced after ultraviolet irradiation and essential for cell-growth promoting activity and transforming activity. Cys-106 is easily oxidized to sulfinic acid. Undergoes cleavage of a C-terminal peptide and subsequent activation of protease activity in response to oxidative stress.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Under normal conditions, located predominantly in the cytoplasm and, to a lesser extent, in the nucleus and mitochondrion. Translocates to the mitochondrion and subsequently to the nucleus in response to oxidative stress and exerts an increased cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage. Detected in tau inclusions in brains from neurodegenerative disease patients.