Recombinant
RabMAb

Anti-Parkin antibody [EPR5024(N)] (Alexa Fluor® 647) (ab196192)

Overview

  • Product name
    Anti-Parkin antibody [EPR5024(N)] (Alexa Fluor® 647)
    See all Parkin primary antibodies
  • Description
    Rabbit monoclonal [EPR5024(N)] to Parkin (Alexa Fluor® 647)
  • Conjugation
    Alexa Fluor® 647. Ex: 652nm, Em: 668nm
  • Tested applications
    Suitable for: IHC-P, IHC-Frmore details
  • Species reactivity
    Reacts with: Rat, Human
    Predicted to work with: Mouse
  • Immunogen

    Synthetic peptide (the amino acid sequence is considered to be commercially sensitive) within Human Parkin aa 1-100 (Cysteine residue). The exact sequence is proprietary.
    Database link: O60260

  • Positive control
    • IHC- FFPE sections - Human normal cerebellum IHC-Fr: Rat Brain Normal
  • General notes

    Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma-based technology for making rabbit monoclonal antibodies. For details on our patents, please refer to RabMab® patents

    Alexa Fluor® is a registered trademark of Molecular Probes, Inc, a Thermo Fisher Scientific Company. The Alexa Fluor® dye included in this product is provided under an intellectual property license from Life Technologies Corporation. As this product contains the Alexa Fluor® dye, the purchase of this product conveys to the buyer the non-transferable right to use the purchased product and components of the product only in research conducted by the buyer (whether the buyer is an academic or for-profit entity). As this product contains the Alexa Fluor® dye the sale of this product is expressly conditioned on the buyer not using the product or its components, or any materials made using the product or its components, in any activity to generate revenue, which may include, but is not limited to use of the product or its components: in manufacturing; (ii) to provide a service, information, or data in return for payment (iii) for therapeutic, diagnostic or prophylactic purposes; or (iv) for resale, regardless of whether they are sold for use in research. For information on purchasing a license to use products containing Alexa Fluor® dyes for purposes other than research, contact Life Technologies Corporation, 5791 Van Allen Way, Carlsbad, CA 92008 USA or outlicensing@lifetech.com

Properties

Applications

Our Abpromise guarantee covers the use of ab196192 in the following tested applications.

The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.

Application Abreviews Notes
IHC-P 1/100. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
IHC-Fr 1/100.

Target

  • Function
    Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, STUB1, a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, SEPT5, ZNF746 and AIMP2. Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context. Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation. Mediates 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation. Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy. Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria. Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in role in regulation of neuron death. Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Loss of this ubiquitin ligase activity appears to be the mechanism underlying pathogenesis of PARK2. May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity. May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene.
  • Tissue specificity
    Highly expressed in the brain including the substantia nigra. Expressed in heart, testis and skeletal muscle. Expression is down-regulated or absent in tumor biopsies, and absent in the brain of PARK2 patients. Overexpression protects dopamine neurons from kainate-mediated apoptosis. Found in serum (at protein level).
  • Pathway
    Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.
  • Involvement in disease
    Defects in PARK2 are a cause of Parkinson disease (PARK) [MIM:168600]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.
    Defects in PARK2 are the cause of Parkinson disease type 2 (PARK2) [MIM:600116]; also known as early-onset parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation (EPDF) or autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease (PDJ). A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, tremor, and onset usually befor 40. It differs from classic Parkinson disease by early DOPA-induced dyskinesia, diurnal fluctuation of the symptoms, sleep benefit, dystonia and hyper-reflexia. Dementia is absent. Pathologically, patients show loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, similar to that seen in Parkinson disease; however, Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins) are absent.
    Note=Defects in PARK2 may be involved in the development and/or progression of ovarian cancer.
  • Sequence similarities
    Belongs to the RBR family. Parkin subfamily.
    Contains 1 IBR-type zinc finger.
    Contains 2 RING-type zinc fingers.
    Contains 1 ubiquitin-like domain.
  • Domain
    The ubiquitin-like domain binds the PSMD4 subunit of 26S proteasomes.
  • Post-translational
    modifications
    Auto-ubiquitinates in an E2-dependent manner leading to its own degradation. Also polyubiquitinated by RNF41 for proteasomal degradation.
    S-nitrosylated. The inhibition of PARK2 ubiquitin E3 ligase activity by S-nitrosylation could contribute to the degenerative process in PD by impairing the ubiquitination of PARK2 substrates.
  • Cellular localization
    Cytoplasm > cytosol. Nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion. Mainly localizes in the cytosol. Co-localizes with SYT11 in neutrites. Co-localizes with SNCAIP in brainstem Lewy bodies. Relocates to dysfunctional mitochondria that have lost the mitochondial membrane potential; recruitement to mitochondria is PINK1-dependent.
  • Information by UniProt
  • Database links
  • Alternative names
    • AR JP antibody
    • E3 ubiquitin ligase antibody
    • E3 ubiquitin protein ligase parkin antibody
    • E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin antibody
    • FRA6E antibody
    • LPRS 2 antibody
    • LPRS2 antibody
    • PARK 2 antibody
    • Park2 antibody
    • Parkin 2 antibody
    • Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive juvenile) 2 antibody
    • Parkinson disease (autosomal recessive, juvenile) 2, parkin antibody
    • Parkinson disease protein 2 antibody
    • Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2 antibody
    • Parkinson protein 2 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase antibody
    • Parkinson protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (parkin) antibody
    • PDJ antibody
    • PRKN 2 antibody
    • PRKN antibody
    • PRKN2 antibody
    • PRKN2_HUMAN antibody
    • Ubiquitin E3 ligase PRKN antibody
    see all

Images

  • IHC image of Parkin staining in a section of frozen normal rat adult brain.

    The section was fixed using 10% formaldehyde in 1XPBS for 10 minutes. No antigen retrieval step was performed prior to staining. Non-specific protein-protein interactions were then blocked in TBS containing 0.025% (v/v) Triton X-100, 0.3M (w/v) glycine and 1% (w/v) BSA for 1h at room temperature. The section was then incubated overnight at +4°C in TBS containing 0.025% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 1% (w/v) BSA with ab196192 at 1/100 (shown in red). Nuclear DNA was labelled with DAPI (shown in blue). The section was then mounted using Fluoromount®.

    Image was taken with a confocal microscope (Leica-Microsystems, TCS SP8).

    For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated), customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, antibody concentrations and incubation times.

  • IHC image of Parkin staining in a section of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal human cerebellum.

    The section was pre-treated using heat mediated antigen retrieval with sodium citrate buffer (pH6) in a Dako Pascal pressure cooker using the standard factory-set regime. Non-specific protein-protein interactions were then blocked in TBS containing 0.025% (v/v) Triton X-100, 0.3M (w/v) glycine and 1% (w/v) BSA for 1h at room temperature. The section was then incubated overnight at +4°C in TBS containing 0.025% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 1% (w/v) BSA with ab196192 at 1/100 (shown in red). Nuclear DNA was labelled with DAPI (shown in blue). The section was then mounted using Fluoromount®.

    Image was taken with a confocal microscope (Leica-Microsystems, TCS SP8).

    For other IHC staining systems (automated and non-automated), customers should optimize variable parameters such as antigen retrieval conditions, antibody concentrations and incubation times.

References

ab196192 has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.

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Please note: All products are "FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND ARE NOT INTENDED FOR DIAGNOSTIC OR THERAPEUTIC USE"

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