The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Stable for one year.
Apoptosis is related to many diseases and development. Caspase-9 plays a central role in cell death induced by a variety of apoptosis activators. Cytochrome c, after release from mitochondria, binds to Apaf-1, which forms an apoptosome that in turn binds to and activates procaspase-9. Activated caspase-9 cleaves and activates the effector caspases (caspase-3, -6 and –7), which are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins in apoptosis. The tumor suppressor putative HLA-DR-associated proteins (PHAPs) were recently identified as important regulators of mitochondrion apoptosis. PHAP appears to facilitate apoptosome-mediated caspase-9 activation and to stimulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PHAP was also shown to oppose both Ras- and Myc-mediated cell transformation.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member A
Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A
Acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A
Acidic nuclear phosphoprotein pp32
Cerebellar leucine rich acidic nuclear protein
Inhibitor 1 of protein phosphatase 2A
inhibitor-1 of protein phosphatase-2A
Leucine rich acidic nuclear protein
Leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein
Potent heat stable protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor I1PP2A
Potent heat-stable protein phosphatase 2A inhibitor I1PP2A
Putative HLA DR associated protein I
Putative HLA-DR-associated protein I
Putative human HLA class II associated protein I
Putative human HLA class II-associated protein
FunctionImplicated in a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis, suppression of transformation (tumor suppressor), inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, regulation of mRNA trafficking and stability in association with ELAVL1, and inhibition of acetyltransferases as part of the INHAT (inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases) complex. Plays a role in E4F1-mediated transcriptional repression.
Tissue specificityExpressed in all tissues tested. Highly expressed in kidney and skeletal muscle, moderate levels of expression in brain, placenta and pancreas, and weakly expressed in lung. Found in all regions of the brain examined (amygdala, caudate nucleus, corpus callosum, hippocampus and thalamus), with highest levels in amygdala.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the ANP32 family. Contains 4 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats. Contains 1 LRRCT domain.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated on serine residues. The N-terminus is blocked. Some glutamate residues are glycylated by TTLL8. This modification occurs exclusively on glutamate residues and results in a glycine chain on the gamma-carboxyl group.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum. Translocates to the cytoplasm during the process of neuritogenesis (By similarity). Shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm.