Functions as an E3-type small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ligase, stabilizing the interaction between UBE2I and the substrate, and as a SUMO-tethering factor. Plays a crucial role as a transcriptional coregulator in various cellular pathways, including the STAT pathway, the p53 pathway and the steroid hormone signaling pathway. The effects of this transcriptional coregulation, transactivation or silencing may vary depending upon the biological context and the PIAS2 isoform studied. However, it seems to be mostly involved in gene silencing. Binds to sumoylated ELK1 and enhances its transcriptional activity by preventing recruitment of HDAC2 by ELK1, thus reversing SUMO-mediated repression of ELK1 transactivation activity. Isoform PIAS2-beta, but not isoform PIAS2-alpha, promotes MDM2 sumoylation. Isoform PIAS2-alpha promotes PARK7 sumoylation. Isoform PIAS2-beta promotes NCOA2 sumoylation more efficiently than isoform PIAS2-alpha. Isoform PIAS2-alpha sumoylates PML at'Lys-65' and 'Lys-160'.
Mainly expressed in testis. Isoform 3 is expressed predominantly in adult testis, weakly in pancreas, embryonic testis and sperm, and at very low levels in other organs.
Protein modification; protein sumoylation.
Belongs to the PIAS family. Contains 1 PINIT domain. Contains 1 SAP domain. Contains 1 SP-RING-type zinc finger.
Isoform 3 expression in adult testis is 14.2-fold stronger than in embryonic testis.
The LXXLL motif is a transcriptional coregulator signature.
Nucleus speckle. Nucleus, PML body. Nucleus. Colocalizes at least partially with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) (PubMed:22406621). Colocalizes with SUMO1 in nuclear granules (By similarity).