Abcam’s Prothrombin Pig in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of prothrombin levels in plasma, serum and cell culture supernatants.
A Prothrombin specific antibody has been precoated onto 96-well plates and blocked. Standards or test samples are added to the wells and subsequently a Prothrombin specific biotinylated detection antibody is added and then followed by washing with wash buffer. Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase Complex is added and unbound conjugates are washed away with wash buffer. TMB is then used to visualize HRP enzymatic reaction. TMB is catalyzed by HRP to produce a blue color product that changes into yellow after adding acidic stop solution. The density of yellow coloration is directly proportional to the amount of Prothrombin captured in plate.
FunctionThrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.
Tissue specificityExpressed by the liver and secreted in plasma.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
Post-translational modificationsThe gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues, which bind calcium ions, result from the carboxylation of glutamyl residues by a microsomal enzyme, the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. The modified residues are necessary for the calcium-dependent interaction with a negatively charged phospholipid surface, which is essential for the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. N-glycosylated. N-glycan heterogeneity at Asn-121: Hex3HexNAc3 (minor), Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major). At Asn-143: Hex4HexNAc3 (minor) and Hex5HexNAc4 (major).