Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between an active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound state. In active state binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as cell spreading and the formation of actin-based protusions including lamellipodia and membrane ruffles. Promotes cell adhesion and spreading on fibrinogen in a CIB1 and alpha-IIb/beta3 integrin-mediated manner.
Highest levels in brain, also detected in heart, placenta and pancreas.
Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
(Microbial infection) Glycosylated at Tyr-32 by Photorhabdus asymbiotica toxin PAU_02230. Mono-O-GlcNAcylation by PAU_02230 inhibits downstream signaling by an impaired interaction with diverse regulator and effector proteins of Rac and leads to actin disassembly.
Cytoplasm. Endomembrane system. Cell projection, lamellipodium. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Membrane-associated when activated. Colocalizes with NRBP to endomembranes and at the cell periphery in lamellipodia. Colocalized with CIB1 in the perinuclear area and at the cell periphery.
Gaitanos TN et al. Tiam-Rac signaling mediates trans-endocytosis of ephrin receptor EphB2 and is important for cell repulsion. J Cell Biol214:735-52 (2016).
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Wang Y et al. Inhibition of prostate smooth muscle contraction and prostate stromal cell growth by the inhibitors of Rac, NSC23766 and EHT1864. Br J Pharmacol172:2905-17 (2015).
Read more (PubMed: 25631101) »