Component of the centralspindlin complex that serves as a microtubule-dependent and Rho-mediated signaling required for the myosin contractile ring formation during the cell cycle cytokinesis. Plays key roles in controlling cell growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells through mechanisms other than regulating Rac GTPase activity. Also involved in the regulation of growth-related processes in adipocytes and myoblasts. May be involved in regulating spermatogenesis and in the RACGAP1 pathway in neuronal proliferation. Shows strong GAP (GTPase activation) activity towards CDC42 and RAC1 and less towards RHOA. Essential for the early stages of embryogenesis. May play a role in regulating cortical activity through RHOA during cytokinesis. May participate in the regulation of sulfate transport in male germ cells.
Highly expressed in testis, thymus and placenta. Expressed at lower levels in spleen and peripheral blood lymphocytes. In testis, expression is restricted to germ cells with the highest levels of expression found in spermatocytes. Expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner and peaks during G2/M phase.
The coiled coil region is indispensible for localization to the midbody during cytokinesis.
Phosphorylated at multiple sites in the midbody during cytokinesis. Phosphorylation by AURKB on Ser-387 at the midbody is, at least in part, responsible for exerting its latent GAP activity towards RhoA. Phosphorylation on multiple serine residues by PLK1 enhances its association with ECT2 and is critical for cleavage furrow formation.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > spindle. Cytoplasmic vesicle > secretory vesicle > acrosome. Cleavage furrow. Midbody. Colocalizes with RND2 in Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles and the acrosome (By similarity). During interphase, localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm along with microtubules, in anaphase, is redistributed to the central spindle and, in telophase and cytokinesis, to the midbody. Colocalizes with RHOA at the myosin contractile ring during cytokinesis. Colocalizes with ECT2 to the mitotic spindles during anaphase/metaphase, the cleavage furrow during telophase and at the midbody at the end of cytokinesis. Colocalizes with Cdc42 to spindle microtubules from prometaphase to telophase.