FunctionActs both as a regulator of telomere function and as a transcription regulator. Involved in the regulation of telomere length and protection as a component of the shelterin complex (telosome). In contrast to other components of the shelterin complex, it is dispensible for telomere capping and does not participate in the protection of telomeres against non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair. Instead, it is required to negatively regulate telomere recombination and is essential for repressing homology-directed repair (HDR), which can affect telomere length. Does not bind DNA directly: recruited to telomeric double-stranded 5'-TTAGGG-3' repeats via its interaction with TERF2. Independently of its function in telomeres, also acts as a transcription regulator: recruited to extratelomeric 5'-TTAGGG-3' sites via its association with TERF2 or other factors, and regulates gene expression. When cytoplasmic, associates with the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) complex and acts as a regulator of the NF-kappa-B signaling by promoting IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65, leading to activate expression of NF-kappa-B target genes.
Tissue specificityUbiquitous. Highly expressed.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the RAP1 family. Contains 1 BRCT domain. Contains 1 Myb-like domain.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Chromosome. Chromosome > telomere. Associates with chromosomes, both at telomeres and in extratelomeric sites. Also exists as a cytoplasmic form, where it associates with the IKK complex.