All tags p21 Spotlight publication: p21 bimodality in cancer

Spotlight publication: p21 bimodality in cancer

Advance your understanding of cancer progression with the latest experiments and tools published in a recent Nature Cell Biology article on p211.

For a long time, p21 was assumed to be a p53-activated protein target that caused cell cycle arrest and slowed cancer progression. In the last decade, studies have uncovered a deeper and more complex role of p21 in promoting cancer progression2,3.

A recent study by Galanos et al. (2016) has shed some important insights into the potential oncogenic effects of p21 in p53-deficient cancer cells that exhibited DNA deregulation and genomic instability. The Galanos et al. findings are crucial to understanding how p21 upregulation can allow cancer cells to escape p53-targeted chemotherapeutic approaches and provide researchers with a new subset of p21 targets whose modulation can regulate p21 function4,1

We have put together the list of cited reagents for your studies on p21. Please note that some recommended reagents may not have been used in the original paper. Should you have any queries on the technical specifications of these products please email technical@abcam.com.

​​Publication

Galanos, P. et al. Chronic p53-independent p21 expression causes genomic instability by deregulating replication licensing. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 777 (2016). Read more

Atypical p21-expressing cells exhibit proliferation (Figure 1)

TypeReagent nameDescriptionAbID
AntibodyAnti-Ki67 antibody
Validated using a knockout cell line
Type: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: IHC-FoFr, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, WB, IHC-P

Click here for conjugated Ki67 primary antibodies
ab16667
Anti-p21 antibody
Validated using a knockout cell line
Type: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: ICC/IF, Flow Cyt, WB, IP, IHC-P
ab109520
Anti-beta actin antibody

Type: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: ICC/IF, WB, IHC

ab8226
ProteinTGFβ protein Recombinant human TGFβ1 protein for p53-independent p21 induction.ab50036
Small molecule compoundDoxorubicinTreatment of escaped clones with a genotoxic agent.ab120629
DoxycyclineInduction of doxycycline-inducible TET-ON systems.ab141091

p21 stimulation increases expression of CDC6 and CDT1 (Figure 2 and 3)

TypeReagent nameDescriptionAbID
AntibodyAnti-Cdc6 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: WB, IHC-P, ICC
ab109315
Anti-Cdc6 (pS54) antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
​Applications: WB, ICC/IF
ab75809
Anti-CDT1 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo
Applications: IP, IHC-P, WB
ab70829
Anti-SET8 antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
​Applications: ICC/IF, WB, IHC-P, Flow Cyt
ab3798
Anti-E2F1 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, IP, Flow Cyt, IHC-P
ab179445
Anti-Vinculin antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, WB, IHC-
ab18058
Anti-Cdc20 antibodyType: Rabbit polyclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: WB, ICC/IF
ab26483
Anti-FZR1 antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo
Applications: IP, WB, Flow Cyt
ab3242
Anti-Cyclin F antibodyType: Rabbit polyclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: IHC-P, WB
ab203117
Anti-p53 antibody
Validated using a knockout cell line
Type: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: ICC/IF, IP, WB, Flow Cyt
ab1101
Small molecule compoundIPTGInduction of p21 in HT1080 cellsab142072
Propidium iodideStudy DNA content using FACSab14083
EdUMonitoring DNA synthesis in TET-ON/OFF systemsab146186
MG132Turning off doxycycline-induced TET-ON cellsab141003
Cycloheximide (CHX)Protein synthesis inhibitorab120093


H2AX phosphorylation during DNA damage and replication stress (Figure 4)

TypeReagent nameDescriptionAbID
AntibodyAnti-gamma H2A.X (phospho S139) antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: ICC/IF, IP, WB, Flow Cyt
ab2893
Anti-53BP1 antibody
Validated using a knockout cell line
Type: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt
ab175933
Anti-Histone H2A.X antibodyType: Rabbit polyclonal - ChIP Grade
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: ICC/IF, IP, WB, IHC
ab11175
Anti-IdU antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Applications: ICC/IF, ELISA, WB, IHC-P
ab181664
Small molecule compoundIdUDNA synthesis monitoring.ab142581
CldUab213715
EdUab146186


p21 replication  stress and repair (Figure 5)

TypeReagent nameDescriptionAbID
AntibodyAnti-Mus81 antibodyType: Mouse monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: ICC/IF, WB, IP, Flow Cyt
ab14387
Anti-Rad51 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu, Mo, Rt
Applications: WB, IHC-P, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt, IP
ab133534
Anti-RAD52 antibody Type: Rabbit polyclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: WB, ICC/IF
ab103067 
Anti-BrdU antibodyType: Rat monoclonal antibody
Applications: ICC/IF, IHC-FoFr, IHC-P, Flow Cyt
ab6326
Small molecule compoundBrdUFor establishing correlation between ssDNA formatin and p21 expression.ab142567
EdUDNA synthesis monitoring.ab146186


p53-independent activation of p21 senescence (Figure 6,7 and 8)

TypeReagent nameDescriptionAbID
AntibodyAnti-p73 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: IHC-Fr, WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, Flow Cyt
ab40658

Anti-CDKN2A/p14ARF antibody Type: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: Flow Cyt, ICC/IF, IP, WB
ab185620

Anti-CDKN2A/p16INK4a antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
Applications: WB, ICC/IF, Flow Cyt
ab81278

Anti-Cyclin A1/A2 antibodyType: Rabbit monoclonal antibody
Reactivity: Hu
​Applications: WB, IHC-P, IP
ab185619
Small molecule compoundSudan black BAnalysis of cells undergoing sensence.ab146284

CisplatinTreatment of escaped cells with genotoxic agent.ab141398

Paclitaxelab120143

References

  1. Galanos, P. et al. Chronic p53-independent p21 expression causes genomic instability by deregulating replication licensing. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 777 (2016). Read more
  2. Viale, A. et al. Cell-cycle restriction limits DNA damage and maintains self-renewal of leukaemia stem cells. Nature 457, 51–56 (2009). Read more
  3. Marhenke, S. et al. p21 Promotes Sustained Liver Regeneration and Hepatocarcinogenesis in Chronic Cholestatic Liver Injury. Gut 1–12 (2013). doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-304829 Read more
  4. Romanov, V. S. & Rudolph, K. L. p21 shapes cancer evolution. Nat. Cell Biol. 18, 722–724 (2016). Read more
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