Participates in various redox reactions through the reversible oxidation of its active center dithiol to a disulfide and catalyzes dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. Plays a role in the reversible S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in target proteins, and thereby contributes to the response to intracellular nitric oxide. Nitrosylates the active site Cys of CASP3 in response to nitric oxide (NO), and thereby inhibits caspase-3 activity. Induces the FOS/JUN AP-1 DNA-binding activity in ionizing radiation (IR) cells through its oxidation/reduction status and stimulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. ADF augments the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor TAC (IL2R/P55).
Belongs to the thioredoxin family. Contains 1 thioredoxin domain.
In the fully reduced protein, both Cys-69 and Cys-73 are nitrosylated in response to nitric oxide (NO). When two disulfide bonds are present in the protein, only Cys-73 is nitrosylated. Cys-73 can serve as donor for nitrosylation of target proteins. In case of infection, ubiquitinated by S.typhimurium protein slrP, leading to its degradation.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Secreted. Secreted by a leaderless secretory pathway. Predominantly in the cytoplasm in non irradiated cells. Radiation induces translocation of TRX from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.