Catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. This small ubiquitous enzyme involved in energy metabolism and nucleotide synthesis that is essential for maintenance and cell growth. Plays a key role in hematopoiesis.
Present in most tissues. Present at high level in heart, liver and kidney, and at low level in brain, skeletal muscle and skin. Present in thrombocytes but not in erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria. Present in all nucleated cell populations from blood, while AK1 is mostly absent. In spleen and lymph nodes, mononuclear cells lack AK1, whereas AK2 is readily detectable. These results indicate that leukocytes may be susceptible to defects caused by the lack of AK2, as they do not express AK1 in sufficient amounts to compensate for the AK2 functional deficits (at protein level).
Involvement in disease
Defects in AK2 are the cause of reticular dysgenesis (RDYS) [MIM:267500]; also known as aleukocytosis. RDYS is the most severe form of inborn severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) and is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth. In bone marrow of individuals with reticular dysgenesis, myeloid differentiation is blocked at the promyelocytic stage, whereas erythro- and megakaryocytic maturation is generally normal.In addition, affected newborns have bilateral sensorineural deafness. Defects may be due to its absence in leukocytes and inner ear, in which its absence can not be compensated by AK1.
Belongs to the adenylate kinase family. AK2 subfamily.