The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Store at -20ºC.
Constituents: 0.32% Tris HCl, 0.58% Sodium chloride
ReconstitutionReconstitute with water to desired concentration.
Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related
Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein
FRAP Related Protein 1
FRAP-related protein 1
MEC1 mitosis entry checkpoint 1 homolog
Protein kinase ATR
Rad3 related protein
Serine/threonine protein kinase ATR
Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR
FunctionSerine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.
Tissue specificityUbiquitous, with highest expression in testis. Isoform 2 is found in pancreas, placenta and liver but not in heart, testis and ovary.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in ATR are a cause of Seckel syndrome type 1 (SCKL1) [MIM:210600]. SCKL1 is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic 'bird-headed' facial appearance.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated; autophosphorylates in vitro.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Nucleus > PML body. Depending on the cell type, it can also be found in PML nuclear bodies. Recruited to chromatin during S-phase. Redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling.