Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia 1 severe neonatal hyperparathyroidism
Parathyroid Ca(2+) sensing receptor 1
Parathyroid Cell calcium sensing receptor
Parathyroid Cell calcium-sensing receptor
FunctionSenses changes in the extracellular concentration of calcium ions. The activity of this receptor is mediated by a G-protein that activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system.
Tissue specificityExpressed in the temporal lobe, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Also found in kidney, lung, liver, heart, skeletal muscle, placenta.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in CASR are the cause of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1 (FHH) [MIM:145980]. FHH is characterized by altered calcium homeostasis. Affected individuals exhibit mild or modest hypercalcemia, relative hypocalciuria, and inappropriately normal PTH levels. Defects in CASR are the cause of neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) [MIM:239200]. NSHPT is a rare autosomal recessive life-threatening disorder characterized by very high serum calcium concentrations, skeletal demineralization, and parathyroid hyperplasia. In some instances NSHPT has been demonstrated to be the homozygous form of FHH. Defects in CASR are a cause of familial isolated hypoparathyroidism (FIH) [MIM:146200]; also called autosomal dominant hypoparathyroidism or autosomal dominant hypocalcemia. FIH is characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone. Symptoms are seizures, tetany and cramps. An autosomal recessive form of FIH also exists. Defects in CASR are the cause of idiopathic generalized epilepsy type 8 (IGE8) [MIM:612899]; also known as EIG8. A disorder characterized by recurring generalized seizures in the absence of detectable brain lesions and/or metabolic abnormalities. Seizure types are variable, but include myoclonic seizures, absence seizures, febrile seizures, complex partial seizures, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Note=Homozygous defects in CASR can be a cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in adulthood. Patients suffer from osteoporosis and renal calculi, have marked hypercalcemia and increased serum PTH concentrations.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family.
Post-translational modificationsN-glycosylated. Ubiquitinated by RNF19A; which induces proteasomal degradation.