The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
% SDS-PAGE. Purified by Ni-NTA chromatography. Purity is greater than 95% (SDS PAGE analyzed). Filtered (0.4 micron).
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Constituents: PBS, pH 7.5
ReconstitutionAdd 0.2 ml of deionized H2O and let the lyophilized pellet dissolve completely.
Aliquot the product after reconstitution to avoid repeated freezing/thawing cycles.
Aging associated protein 4
Aging-associated gene 4 protein
Clusterin alpha chain
Clusterin beta chain
Complement associated protein SP 40
Complement associated protein SP 40 40
Complement associated protein SP40
Complement cytolysis inhibitor
Complement cytolysis inhibitor a chain
Complement cytolysis inhibitor b chain
Complement lysis inhibitor
Complement-associated protein SP-40
Dimeric acid glycoprotein
Ku70-binding protein 1
Sulfated glycoprotein 2
Testosterone repressed prostate message 2
Testosterone-repressed prostate message 2
FunctionIsoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
Tissue specificityDetected in blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, milk, seminal plasma and colon mucosa. Detected in the germinal center of colon lymphoid nodules and in colon parasympathetic ganglia of the Auerbach plexus (at protein level). Ubiquitous. Detected in brain, testis, ovary, liver and pancreas, and at lower levels in kidney, heart, spleen and lung.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the clusterin family.
Post-translational modificationsIsoform 1 is proteolytically cleaved on its way through the secretory system, probably within the Golgi lumen. Polyubiquitinated, leading to proteasomal degradation. Heavily N-glycosylated. About 30% of the protein mass is comprised of complex N-linked carbohydrate.
Cellular localizationSecreted. Can retrotranslocate from the secretory compartments to the cytosol upon cellular stress and Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion membrane. Cytoplasm, cytosol. Microsome. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic vesicle, secretory vesicle, chromaffin granule. Isoforms lacking the N-terminal signal sequence have been shown to be cytoplasmic and/or nuclear. Secreted isoforms can retrotranslocate from the secretory compartments to the cytosol upon cellular stress. Detected in perinuclear foci that may be aggresomes containing misfolded, ubiquitinated proteins. Detected at the mitochondrion membrane upon induction of apoptosis.