FunctionThe coatomer is a cytosolic protein complex that binds to dilysine motifs and reversibly associates with Golgi non-clathrin-coated vesicles, which further mediate biosynthetic protein transport from the ER, via the Golgi up to the trans Golgi network. Coatomer complex is required for budding from Golgi membranes, and is essential for the retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport of dilysine-tagged proteins. In mammals, the coatomer can only be recruited by membranes associated to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are small GTP-binding proteins; the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors. The zeta subunit may be involved in regulating the coat assembly and, hence, the rate of biosynthetic protein transport due to its association-dissociation properties with the coatomer complex.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the adaptor complexes small subunit family.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Golgi apparatus membrane. Cytoplasmic vesicle > COPI-coated vesicle membrane. The coatomer is cytoplasmic or polymerized on the cytoplasmic side of the Golgi, as well as on the vesicles/buds originating from it.