FunctionCell surface transmembrane ligand for Eph receptors, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which are crucial for migration, repulsion and adhesion during neuronal, vascular and epithelial development. Binds promiscuously Eph receptors residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signaling into neighboring cells. The signaling pathway downstream of the receptor is referred to as forward signaling while the signaling pathway downstream of the ephrin ligand is referred to as reverse signaling. Binds to receptor tyrosine kinase including EPHA4, EPHA3 and EPHB4. Together with EPHB4 plays a central role in heart morphogenesis and angiogenesis through regulation of cell adhesion and cell migration. EPHB4-mediated forward signaling controls cellular repulsion and segregation from EFNB2-expressing cells. May play a role in constraining the orientation of longitudinally projecting axons. (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for Hendra virus and Nipah virus.
Tissue specificityLung and kidney.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the ephrin family. Contains 1 ephrin RBD (ephrin receptor-binding) domain.
Post-translational modificationsInducible phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic domain.