nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon growth hormone (GH) stimulation and could reveal an essential role of hepatic GR in the control of body growth. Involved in chromatin remodeling. Plays a significant role in transactivation. Involved in nuclear translocation.
Widely expressed. In the heart, detected in left and right atria, left and right ventricles, aorta, apex, intraventricular septum, and atrioventricular node as well as whole adult and fetal heart.
Involvement in disease
Defects in NR3C1 are a cause of glucocorticoid resistance (GCRES) [MIM:138040]; also known as cortisol resistance. It is a hypertensive, hyperandrogenic disorder characterized by increased serum cortisol concentrations. Inheritance is autosomal dominant.
Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily. Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain.
Composed of three domains: a modulating N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding domain and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain.
Increased proteasome-mediated degradation in response to glucocorticoids. Phosphorylated in the absence of hormone; becomes hyperphosphorylated in the presence of glucocorticoid. The Ser-203-phosphorylated form is mainly cytoplasmic, and the Ser-211-phosphorylated form is nuclear. Transcriptional activity correlates with the amount of phosphorylation at Ser-211. Sumoylated; this reduces transcription transactivation. Ubiquitinated; restricts glucocorticoid-mediated transcriptional signaling.
Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasmic in the absence of ligand, nuclear after ligand-binding and Nucleus. Localized largely in the nucleus.