The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Biological activityThe effects of phospho ERK1/2 and non phospho ERK1/2 by ab113403 in THP1 cells. To examine the signal of phospho p44/42 MAPK and p44/42 MAP kinase, reactions were carried out at 37°C 0, 30, 60, min, respectively by adding the recombinant protein (100 ng/ml) to the THP1 monocyte cell, which was maintained with serum starvation for 24 hrs. Recombinant proteins in lanes 1, 2, and 3 were subjected to THP1 monocyte cell treatments over 0, 30, 60 mins, respectively. 2. The effects of phospho ERK1/2 and non phospho ERK1/2 by ab113403 in MCF10A cells. To examine the signal of phospho p44/42 MAPK and p44/42 MAP kinase, reactions were carried out at 37°C over 0, 10, 30, 60 mins, respectively by adding the recombinant protein (500 ng/ml) to the MCF10A human breast epithelial cells, which was maintained with serum starvation for 24 hrs. Recombinant proteins in lanes 2, 3, and 4 were subjected to MCF10A human breast epithelial cell treatments over 0, 10, 30, 60 mins, respectively.
% SDS-PAGE. Sterile filtered solution. >90% pure by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis.
Additional notesEndotoxin Level: <0.1 ng/µg
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
Constituent: 99% PBS
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
ReconstitutionReconstitute with sterile water.
PC cell derived growth factor
FunctionGranulins have possible cytokine-like activity. They may play a role in inflammation, wound repair, and tissue remodeling. Granulin-4 promotes proliferation of the epithelial cell line A431 in culture while granulin-3 acts as an antagonist to granulin-4, inhibiting the growth.
Tissue specificityIn myelogenous leukemic cell lines of promonocytic, promyelocytic, and proerythroid lineage, in fibroblasts, and very strongly in epithelial cell lines. Present in inflammatory cells and bone marrow. Highest levels in kidney.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in GRN are the cause of ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal dementia (UP-FTD) [MIM:607485]; also known as tau-negative frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 17. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common cause of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. It is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the granulin family.
Post-translational modificationsGranulins are disulfide bridged.