The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Biological activityHuman MIF biological activity was measured in an agarose micro droplet assay using human U937 cells as targets. The optimal range of activity found for human MIF in this assay was 0.5-1µg/ml.
% SDS-PAGE. Purity is greater than 97% as determined by HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Endotoxin Level: <0.1 ng/µg.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Store at -20°C. Store under desiccating conditions.
pH: 7.50 Constituent: 0.14% Sodium phosphate
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
ReconstitutionReconstitute in sterile dH2O to a concentration of 0.1 -1 mg/ml. This solution can then be diluted into other aqueous buffers and stored at 4°C for 1 week or –20°C for future use. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).
FunctionPro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Involvement in diseaseGenetic variations in MIF are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ) [MIM:604302]. An inflammatory articular disorder with systemic-onset beginning before the age of 16. It represents a subgroup of juvenile arthritis associated with severe extraarticular features and occasionally fatal complications. During active phases of the disorder, patients display a typical daily spiking fever, an evanescent macular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, serositis, myalgia and arthritis.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the MIF family.
Cellular localizationSecreted. Cytoplasm. Does not have a cleavable signal sequence and is secreted via a specialized, non-classical pathway. Secreted by macrophages upon stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or by M.tuberculosis antigens.