Stimulates neutrophil and monocyte-mediated inflammatory responses. Triggers release of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as increased surface expression of cell activation markers. Amplifier of inflammatory responses that are triggered by bacterial and fungal infections and is a crucial mediator of septic shock.
Highly expressed in adult liver, lung and spleen than in corresponding fetal tissue. Also expressed in the lymph node, placenta, spinal cord and heart tissues. Expression is more elevated in peripheral blood leukocytes than in the bone marrow and in normal cells than malignant cells. Expressed at low levels in the early development of the hematopoietic system and in the promonocytic stage and at high levels in mature monocytes. Strongly expressed in acute inflammatory lesions caused by bacteria and fungi. Isoform 2 was detected in the lung, liver and mature monocytes.