The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Determined by its ability to chemoattract human peripheral blood monocytes using a concentration range of 50-100 ng/ml.
% by SDS-PAGE. >98% by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses.
Endotoxin level is <0.1 ng per µg.
Additional notesThe reconstituted solution can be diluted into an aqueous buffer and stored at 4°C for 1 week or –20°C for future use.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycles.
Endotoxin level is <0.1 ng per µg.
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
ReconstitutionCentrifuge the vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in sterile distilled water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. (The protein may appear as a haze or film, which is difficult to see at the bottom of the vial. )
C-X-C motif chemokine 12
Intercrine reduced in hepatomas
Pre-B cell growth-stimulating factor
SDF 1 beta
Stromal cell derived factor 1
FunctionChemoattractant active on T-lymphocytes, monocytes, but not neutrophils. Activates the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR4 to induce a rapid and transient rise in the level of intracellular calcium ions and chemotaxis. Also binds to another C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR7, which activates the beta-arrestin pathway and acts as a scavenger receptor for SDF-1. SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1-alpha(3-67) show a reduced chemotactic activity. Binding to cell surface proteoglycans seems to inhibit formation of SDF-1-alpha(3-67) and thus to preserve activity on local sites. Acts as a positive regulator of monocyte migration and a negative regulator of monocyte adhesion via the LYN kinase. Stimulates migration of monocytes and T-lymphocytes through its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, and decreases monocyte adherence to surfaces coated with ICAM-1, a ligand for beta-2 integrins. SDF1A/CXCR4 signaling axis inhibits beta-2 integrin LFA-1 mediated adhesion of monocytes to ICAM-1 through LYN kinase. Inhibits CXCR4-mediated infection by T-cell line-adapted HIV-1. Plays a protective role after myocardial infarction. Induces down-regulation and internalization of CXCR7 expressed in various cells. Has several critical functions during embryonic development; required for B-cell lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis in bone marrow and heart ventricular septum formation.
Tissue specificityIsoform Alpha and isoform Beta are ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels detected in liver, pancreas and spleen. Isoform Gamma is mainly expressed in heart, with weak expression detected in several other tissues. Isoform Delta, isoform Epsilon and isoform Theta have highest expression levels in pancreas, with lower levels detected in heart, kidney, liver and spleen.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the intercrine alpha (chemokine CxC) family.
Developmental stageIsoform Alpha is ubiquitously expressed in fetal tissues. Isoform Beta and isoform Delta have more limited expression patterns, with highest levels detected in fetal spleen and fetal liver, respectively. Isoform Gamma and isoform Theta are weakly detected in fetal kidney.
Post-translational modificationsProcessed forms SDF-1-beta(3-72) and SDF-1-alpha(3-67) are produced after secretion by proteolytic cleavage of isoforms Beta and Alpha, respectively. The N-terminal processing is probably achieved by DPP4. Isoform Alpha is first cleaved at the C-terminus to yield a SDF-1-alpha(1-67) intermediate before being processed at the N-terminus. The C-terminal processing of isoform Alpha is reduced by binding to heparin and, probably, cell surface proteoglycans.