The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Biological activityBiological Activity:
As determined by the dose-dependent induced proliferation of Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) when compared to a standard. The expected ED50 is 4.0-8.0 ng/ml.
% SDS-PAGE. Purity is approximately 97% as determined by RP-HPLC and reducing and non-reducing SDS-PAGE.
Additional notesEndotoxin Level:
Endotoxin level as measured by LAL is <0.01ng/ug or <0.1EU/ug.
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Preparation and Storage
Stability and Storage
Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
Information available upon request.
This product is an active protein and may elicit a biological response in vivo, handle with caution.
ReconstitutionIt is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized product with sterile water at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, which can be further diluted into other aqueous solutions.
Reconstituted material should be aliquoted and frozen at -20°C. It is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA) for long term storage.
Folliculostellate cell-derived growth factor
Glioma-derived endothelial cell mitogen
vascular endothelial growth factor
Vascular endothelial growth factor A
vascular endothelial growth factor A121
vascular endothelial growth factor A165
Vascular permeability factor
FunctionGrowth factor active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth. Induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Binds to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. Isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, does not activate angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth.
Tissue specificityIsoform VEGF189, isoform VEGF165 and isoform VEGF121 are widely expressed. Isoform VEGF206 and isoform VEGF145 are not widely expressed.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in VEGFA are a cause of susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 1 (MVCD1) [MIM:603933]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family.
Cellular localizationSecreted. VEGF121 is acidic and freely secreted. VEGF165 is more basic, has heparin-binding properties and, although a signicant proportion remains cell-associated, most is freely secreted. VEGF189 is very basic, it is cell-associated after secretion and is bound avidly by heparin and the extracellular matrix, although it may be released as a soluble form by heparin, heparinase or plasmin.