Acts as a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS). Modulates G protein alpha subunits nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis activities by functioning either as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), thereby driving G protein alpha subunits into their inactive GDP-bound form, or as a GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDI). Confers GDI activity on G(i) alpha subunits GNAI1 and GNAI3, but not G(o) alpha subunit GNAO1 and G(i) alpha subunit GNAI2. Confers GAP activity on G(o) alpha subunit GNAI0 and G(i) alpha subunits GNAI2 and GNAI3. May act as a scaffold integrating G protein and Ras/Raf MAPkinase signaling pathways. Inhibits platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation; a process depending on its interaction with HRAS1 and that is reversed by G(i) alpha subunit GNAI1. Acts as a positive modulator of microtubule polymerisation and spindle organization through a G(i)-alpha-dependent mechanism. Plays a role in cell division. Probably required for the nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth. May be involved in visual memory processing capacity and hippocampal-based learning and memory.
The RGS domain is necessary for GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity for G subunits and localization to the nucleus and centrosomes. The GoLoco domain is necessary for GDP-dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity, translocation out of the nucleus and interaction with G(i) alpha subunits GNAI1, GNAI2 and GNAI3. The RBD domains are necessary for localization to the nucleus and centrosomes.
Phosphorylated by PKC. Phosphorylation is increased in presence of forskolin and may enhance the GDI activity on G(i) alpha subunit GNAI1.
Nucleus. Nucleus > PML body. Cytoplasm. Membrane. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > centrosome. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > spindle. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > spindle pole. Cell projection > dendrite. Cell projection > dendritic spine. Cell junction > synapse > postsynaptic cell membrane > postsynaptic density. Associates with the perinuclear sheaths of microtubules (MTs) surrounding the pronuclei, prior to segregating to the anastral mitotic apparatus and subsequently the barrel-shaped cytoplasmic bridge between the nascent nuclei of the emerging 2-cell embryo. Localizes to a perinuclear compartment near the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Expressed in the nucleus during interphase and segregates to the centrosomes and astral MTs during mitosis. Relocalizes to the nucleus in PML nuclear bodies in response to heat stress. Colocalizes with RIC8A in CA2 hippocampal neurons. Localizes to spindle poles during metaphase. Shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm in a CRM1-dependent manner. Recruited from the cytosol to the plasma membrane by the inactive GDP-bound forms of G(i) alpha subunits GNAI1 and GNAI3. Recruited from the cytosol to membranes by the active GTP-bound form of HRAS1. Colocalizes with G(i) alpha subunit GNAI1 and RIC8A at the plasma membrane. Colocalizes with BRAF and RAF1 in both the cytoplasm and membranes.
Özdemir S et al. Imidacloprid exposure cause the histopathological changes, activation of TNF-a, iNOS, 8-OHdG biomarkers, and alteration of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A, MT1 gene expression levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpioL.). Toxicol Rep5:125-133 (2018).
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