The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Use a concentration of 0.1 - 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 24 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 21 kDa).
Use a concentration of 2 - 5 µg/ml.
Use a concentration of 0.01 - 0.1 µg/ml.
FunctionRegulates a signal transduction pathway linking plasma membrane receptors to the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. Involved in a microtubule-dependent signal that is required for the myosin contractile ring formation during cell cycle cytokinesis. Plays an essential role in cleavage furrow formation. Required for the apical junction formation of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Serves as a target for the yopT cysteine peptidase from Yersinia pestis, vector of the plague, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, which causes gastrointestinal disorders. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. May be an activator of PLCE1. Activated by ARHGEF2, which promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. The MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. It controls the localization of APC and CLASP2 to the cell membrane, via the regulation of GSK3B activity. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of the MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Rho family.
DomainThe basic-rich region is essential for yopT recognition and cleavage.
Post-translational modificationsSubstrate for botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase. Cleaved by yopT protease when the cell is infected by some Yersinia pathogens. This removes the lipid attachment, and leads to its displacement from plasma membrane and to subsequent cytoskeleton cleavage. AMPylation at Tyr-34 and Thr-37 are mediated by bacterial enzymes in case of infection by H.somnus and V.parahaemolyticus, respectively. AMPylation occurs in the effector region and leads to inactivation of the GTPase activity by preventing the interaction with downstream effectors, thereby inhibiting actin assembly in infected cells. It is unclear whether some human enzyme mediates AMPylation; FICD has such ability in vitro but additional experiments remain to be done to confirm results in vivo. Phosphorylation by PRKG1 at Ser-188 inactivates RHOA signaling. Ubiquitinated by the BCR(BACURD1) and BCR(BACURD2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, leading to its degradation by the proteasome, thereby regulating the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration.
Cellular localizationCell membrane. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cleavage furrow. Cytoplasm > cell cortex. Midbody. Localized to cell-cell contacts in calcium-treated keratinocytes (By similarity). Translocates to the equatorial region before furrow formation in a ECT2-dependent manner. Localizes to the equatorial cell cortex (at the site of the presumptive furrow) in early anaphase in a activated form and in a myosin- and actin-independent manner.