The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesIHC-P: 1/100 - 1/500. Epitope exposure is recommended. Epitope exposure with citrate buffer will enhance staining.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionRequired for checkpoint mediated arrest of cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage during S-phase (the intra-S-phase checkpoint). This checkpoint requires activation of at least 2 parallel pathways by the ATM kinase: one involves the MRN (MRE11A-RAD50-NBS1) complex, while the second requires CHEK2. RIF1 seems to act independently of both these pathways. Seems to play no role in either the G1/S or G2/M DNA damage checkpoints.
Tissue specificityHighly expressed in testis.
Developmental stageExpression peaks in late G2/S phase of the cell cycle.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated upon DNA damage, probably by ATM or ATR.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Chromosome > telomere. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton > spindle. Exhibits ATM- and TP53BP1-dependent localization to uncapped or aberrant telomeres and to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Does not associate with normal telomere structures. Localizes to microtubules of the midzone of the mitotic spindle during anaphase, and to condensed chromosomes in telophase.