The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/250 - 1/500.
1/50 - 1/200. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
Use a concentration of 1 - 4 µg/ml. Fixation/Permeabilization: PFA/Triton X-100
FunctionProbable component of the axonemal radial spoke head. Radial spokes are regularly spaced along cilia, sperm and flagella axonemes. They consist of a thin stalk which is attached to a subfiber of the outer doublet microtubule, and a bulbous head which is attached to the stalk and appears to interact with the projections from the central pair of microtubules.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in RSPH4A are the cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia type 11 (CILD11) [MIM:612649]. CILD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axonemal abnormalities of motile cilia. Respiratory infections leading to chronic inflammation and bronchiectasis are recurrent, due to defects in the respiratory cilia; reduced fertility is often observed in male patients due to abnormalities of sperm tails. Half of the patients exhibit situs inversus, due to dysfunction of monocilia at the embryonic node and randomization of left-right body asymmetry. Primary ciliary dyskinesia associated with situs inversus is referred to as Kartagener syndrome.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the flagellar radial spoke RSP4/6 family.