Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionCalcium-binding protein. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi. Important for resistance to invasion by pathogenic bacteria. Up-regulates transcription of genes that are under the control of NF-kappa-B. Plays a role in the development of endotoxic shock in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (By similarity). Promotes tubulin polymerization when unphosphorylated. Promotes phagocyte migration and infiltration of granulocytes at sites of wounding. Plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation and up-regulates the release of IL8 and cell-surface expression of ICAM1. Extracellular calprotectin binds to target cells and promotes apoptosis. Antimicrobial and proapoptotic activity is inhibited by zinc ions.
Tissue specificityExpressed by macrophages in acutely inflammed tissues and in chronic inflammation. Detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, in neutrophils and granulocytes. Detected at sites of vascular inflammation (at protein level). Also expressed in epithelial cells constitutively or induced during dermatoses.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the S-100 family. Contains 2 EF-hand domains.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated. Phosphorylation inhibits activation of tubulin polymerization.
Cellular localizationSecreted. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cell membrane. Associates with tubulin filaments in activated monocytes. Targeted to the cell surface upon calcium influx. Released from blood leukocytes upon exposure to CSF2/GM-CSF, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and during inflammatory processes. Serum levels are high in patients suffering from chronic inflammation.
ab92468, at a 1/100 dilution, staining S100A9 in paraffin embedded Human spleen tissue by Immunohistochemistry.
References for Anti-S100A9 antibody [EPR3556] (ab92468)
This product has been referenced in:
Junker H et al. Stage-Related Alterations in Renal Cell Carcinoma - Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis by 2D-DIGE and Protein Network Analysis. PLoS One6:e21867 (2011).
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