The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
1/100. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
FunctionPhosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) phosphatase that specifically hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) to produce PtdIns(3,4)P2, thereby negatively regulating the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathways. Acts as a negative regulator of B-cell antigen receptor signaling. Mediates signaling from the FC-gamma-RIIB receptor (FCGR2B), playing a central role in terminating signal transduction from activating immune/hematopoietic cell receptor systems. Acts as a negative regulator of myeloid cell proliferation/survival and chemotaxis, mast cell degranulation, immune cells homeostasis, integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 signaling in platelets and JNK signaling in B-cells. Regulates proliferation of osteoclast precursors, macrophage programming, phagocytosis and activation and is required for endotoxin tolerance. Involved in the control of cell-cell junctions, CD32a signaling in neutrophils and modulation of EGF-induced phospholipase C activity. Key regulator of neutrophil migration, by governing the formation of the leading edge and polarization required for chemotaxis. Modulates FCGR3/CD16-mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells. Mediates the activin/TGF-beta-induced apoptosis through its Smad-dependent expression. May also hydrolyze PtdIns(1,3,4,5)P4, and could thus affect the levels of the higher inositol polyphosphates like InsP6.
Tissue specificitySpecifically expressed in immune and hematopoietic cells. Expressed in bone marrow and blood cells. Levels vary considerably within this compartment. Present in at least 74% of immature CD34+ cells, whereas within the more mature population of CD33+ cells, it is present in only 10% of cells. Present in the majority of T-cells, while it is present in a minority of B-cells (at protein level).
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase family. Contains 1 SH2 domain.
DomainThe SH2 domain interacts with tyrosine phosphorylated forms of proteins such as SHC1 or PTPN11/SHP-2. It competes with that of GRB2 for binding to phosphorylated SHC1 to inhibit the Ras pathway. It is also required for tyrosine phosphorylation. The NPXY sequence motif found in many tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins is required for the specific binding of the PID domain.
Post-translational modificationsTyrosine phosphorylated by the members of the SRC family after exposure to a diverse array of extracellular stimuli such as cytokines, growth factors, antibodies, chemokines, integrin ligands and hypertonic and oxidative stress. Phosphorylated upon IgG receptor FCGR2B-binding.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Membrane. Translocates to the plasma membrane when activated, translocation is probably due to different mechanisms depending on the stimulus and cell type. Partly translocated via its SH2 domain which mediates interaction with tyrosine phosphorylated receptors such as the FC-gamma-RIIB receptor (FCGR2B) or CD16/FCGR3. Tyrosine phosphorylation may also participate to membrane localization.