Central component of the condensin complex, a complex required for conversion of interphase chromatin into mitotic-like condense chromosomes. The condensin complex probably introduces positive supercoils into relaxed DNA in the presence of type I topoisomerases and converts nicked DNA into positive knotted forms in the presence of type II topoisomerases.
Widely expressed. Higher expression in testis, colon, thymus.
Belongs to the SMC family. SMC4 subfamily.
The hinge domain, which separates the large intramolecular coiled coil regions, allows the heterodimerization with SMC2, forming a V-shaped heterodimer.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Chromosome. In interphase cells, the majority of the condensin complex is found in the cytoplasm, while a minority of the complex is associated with chromatin. A subpopulation of the complex however remains associated with chromosome foci in interphase cells. During mitosis, most of the condensin complex is associated with the chromatin. At the onset of prophase, the regulatory subunits of the complex are phosphorylated by CDC2, leading to condensin's association with chromosome arms and to chromosome condensation. Dissociation from chromosomes is observed in late telophase.