The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 86 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 86 kDa).
FunctionE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the form of a thioester and then directly transfers the ubiquitin to targeted substrates. Interacts with SMAD1 and SMAD7 in order to trigger their ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, interaction with SMAD7 activates autocatalytic degradation, which is prevented by interaction with SCYE1. Forms a stable complex with the TGF-beta receptor-mediated phosphorylated SMAD2 and SMAD3. In this way, SMAD2 may recruit substrates, such as SNON, for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Enhances the inhibitory activity of SMAD7 and reduces the transcriptional activity of SMAD2. Coexpression of SMURF2 with SMAD1 results in considerable decrease in steady-state level of SMAD1 protein and a smaller decrease of SMAD2 level.
Tissue specificityWidely expressed.
PathwayProtein modification; protein ubiquitination.
DomainThe second and third WW domains are responsible for interaction with the PY-motif of R-SMAD (SMAD1, SMAD2 and SMAD3). The C2 domain is involved in autoinhibition of the catalytic activity by interacting with the HECT domain.
Post-translational modificationsAuto-ubiquitinated and ubiquitinated in the presence of RNF11 and UBE2D1.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Membrane raft. Cytoplasmic in the presence of SMAD7. Co-localizes with CAV1, SMAD7 and TGF-beta receptor in membrane rafts.
ICC/IF image of ab94483 stained HepG2 cells. The cells were 4% PFA fixed (10 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab94483, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899, DyLight® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM. This antibody also gave a positive result in 100% methanol fixed (5 min) HepG2 cells at 5µg/ml.
References for Anti-SMURF 2 antibody (ab94483)
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