The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use 1µg for 106 cells. ab170190-Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
1/1000. Predicted molecular weight: 29 kDa.
FunctionInvolved in induction of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), formation and maintenance of embryonic mesoderm, growth arrest, survival and cell migration. Binds to 3 E-boxes of the E-cadherin/CDH1 gene promoter and to the promoters of CLDN7 and KRT8 and, in association with histone demethylase KDM1A which it recruits to the promoters, causes a decrease in dimethylated H3K4 levels and represses transcription. Associates with EGR1 and SP1 to mediate tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA)-induced up-regulation of CDKN2B, possibly by binding to the CDKN2B promoter region 5'-TCACA-3. In addition, may also activate the CDKN2B promoter by itself.
Tissue specificityExpressed in a variety of tissues with the highest expression in kidney. Expressed in mesenchymal and epithelial cell lines.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the snail C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. Contains 4 C2H2-type zinc fingers.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated by GSK3B. Once phosphorylated, it becomes a target for BTRC ubiquitination. Phosphorylation by CSNK1E, probably at Ser-104, provides the priming site for the subsequent phosphorylation by GSK3B, probably at Ser-100 and Ser-96. Phosphorylation by PAK1 may modulate its transcriptional activity by promoting increased accumulation in the nucleus. Phosphorylation at Ser-11 and Ser-92 positively regulates its functions in induction of EMT and cell survival, respectively. Phosphorylation by LATS2, upon mitotic stress, oncogenic stress or Hippo pathway activation, occurs in the nucleus and promotes nuclear retention and stabilization of total cellular protein level. Ubiquitinated on Lys-98, Lys-137 and Lys-146 by FBXL14 and BTRC leading to degradation. BTRC-triggered ubiquitination requires previous GSK3B-mediated SNAI1 phosphorylation. Ubiquitination induced upon interaction with NOTCH1 or TP53/p53 is mediated by MDM2. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-112 is enhanced in hyperglycaemic conditions, it opposes phosphorylation by GSK3B, and stabilizes the protein. ADP-ribosylation by PARP1 increases protein half-life and may be involved in TGFB-induced SNAI1 up-regulation.
Cellular localizationNucleus. Cytoplasm. Once phosphorylated (probably on Ser-107, Ser-111, Ser-115 and Ser-119) it is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where subsequent phosphorylation of the destruction motif and ubiquitination involving BTRC occurs.
Overlay histogram showing HCT116 cells stained with ab117866 (red line). The cells were fixed with 80% methanol (5 min) and then permeabilized with 0.1% PBS-Tween for 20 min. The cells were then incubated in 1x PBS / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine to block non-specific protein-protein interactions followed by the antibody (ab117866, 1µg/1x106 cells) for 30 min at 22ºC. The secondary antibody used was DyLight® 488 goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) (ab96879) at 1/500 dilution for 30 min at 22ºC. Isotype control antibody (black line) was mouse IgG1 [ICIGG1] (ab91353, 2µg/1x106 cells) used under the same conditions. Acquisition of >5,000 events was performed.
References for Anti-SNAIL antibody [10D7] (ab117866)
has not yet been referenced specifically in any publications.
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