The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 70 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 68 kDa).
Participates in the Wnt signaling pathway and modulates MYC expression by binding to its promoter in a sequence-specific manner. Acts as repressor in the absence of CTNNB1, and as activator in its presence. Activates transcription from promoters with several copies of the Tcf motif 5'-CCTTTGATC-3' in the presence of CTNNB1. TLE1, TLE2, TLE3 and TLE4 repress transactivation mediated by TCF7L2 and CTNNB1. Expression of dominant-negative mutants results in cell-cycle arrest in G1. Necessary for the maintenance of the epithelial stem-cell compartment of the small intestine.
Detected in epithelium from small intestine, with the highest expression at the top of the crypts and a gradient of expression from crypt to villus. Detected in colon epithelium and colon cancer, and in epithelium from mammary gland and carcinomas derived therefrom.
Involvement in disease
Note=Constitutive activation and subsequent transactivation of target genes may lead to the maintenance of stem-cell characteristics (cycling and longevity) in cells that should normally undergo terminal differentiation and constitute the primary transforming event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Genetic variations in TCF7L2 are associated with susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) [MIM:125853]. NIDDM is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset during adulthood and insulin resistance.
Belongs to the TCF/LEF family. Contains 1 HMG box DNA-binding domain.
Highly expressed in crypt regions and barely detectable in villi in epithelium from fetal small intestine at week 16. At week 22 expression in villi had increased strongly.
The promoter-specific activation domain interacts with the transcriptional coactivator EP300.
In vitro, phosphorylated by TNIK. Polysumoylated. Sumoylation is enhanced by PIAS family members and desumoylated by AXAM/SENP2. Sumoylation/desumoylation regulates TCF4 transcription activity in the Wnt signaling pathway without altering interaction with CTNNB1 nor binding DNA.
Nucleus > PML body. Diffuse pattern. Colocalizes with SUMO1 and PIAS4 in a subset of PML (promyelocytic leukemia) nuclear bodies.
ICC/IF image of ab84168 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab84168, 1µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM. This antibody also gave a positive result in 100% methanol fixed (5 min) Hek293, HepG2 and MCF7 cells at 1µg/ml, and in 4% PFA fixed (10 min) HeLa, Hek293, HepG2 and MCF7 cells at 1µg/ml.