General notesPreliminary experiments gave bands at approx 150kDa and 37kDa in Mouse and Rat Brain lysates after 0.3µg/ml antibody staining. Please note that currently we cannot find an explanation in the literature for the bands we observe given the calculated size of 192kDa according to mouse NP_036008.2. Both detected bands were successfully blocked by incubation with the immunizing peptide (and BLAST results with the immunizing peptide sequence did not identify any other proteins to explain the additional bands).
Storage instructionsShipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 5 - 10 µg/ml. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with citrate buffer pH 6 before commencing with IHC staining protocol.
FunctionModulates the activity of RHO-like proteins and connects extracellular signals to cytoskeletal activities. Acts as a GDP-dissociation stimulator protein that stimulates the GDP-GTP exchange activity of RHO-like GTPases and activates them. Mediates extracellular laminin signals to activate Rac1, contributing to neurite growth. Involved in lamellipodial formation and advancement of the growth cone of embryonic hippocampal neurons. Promotes migration of neurons in the cerebral cortex. When overexpressed, induces membrane ruffling accompanied by the accumulation of actin filaments along the altered plasma membrane (By similarity). Activates specifically RAC1, but not CDC42 and RHOA.
Tissue specificityExpressed in the occipital, frontal and temporal lobes, cerebellum, putamen and testis.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the TIAM family. Contains 1 DH (DBL-homology) domain. Contains 1 PDZ (DHR) domain. Contains 2 PH domains. Contains 1 RBD (Ras-binding) domain.
DomainThe PH 1 domain and amino acids 621-782 (a region called TSS; otherwise known as CC-Ex) are necessary for membrane localization. The PH 1 and TSS domains are necessary for Rac1 activity. The PH 2 domain is engaged in the enhancement of the catalytic activity of the adjacent DH domain. The PH 1, TSS and DH domains are necessary to induce neurite-like structure.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Phosphorylated on Thr-1648 by Rho-kinase. Its phosphorylation by Rho-kinase inhibits its guanine nucleotide exchange activity, its interaction with MAP1A, MAP1B, PARP1 and YWHAE and reduces its ability to promote neurite growth.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Cell projection > lamellipodium. Cell projection > filopodium. Cell projection > growth cone. Localizes to the plasma membrane in neurites.