The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesIHC-P: 1/100 - 1/500. Antigen retrieval with citrate buffer will enhance staining.
Note: likely to work with frozen sections.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionActs as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Promotes SMAD4 ubiquitination, nuclear exclusion and degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. According to PubMed:16751102, does not promote a decrease in the level of endogenous SMAD4. May act as a transcriptional repressor. Inhibits the transcriptional response to TGF-beta/BMP signaling cascade. Plays a role in the control of cell proliferation. Its association with SMAD2 and SMAD3 stimulates erythroid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor (By similarity). Monoubiquitinates SMAD4 and acts as an inhibitor of SMAD4-dependent TGF-beta/BMP signaling cascade (Monoubiquitination of SMAD4 hampers its ability to form a stable complex with activated SMAD2/3 resulting in inhibition of TGF-beta/BMP signaling cascade).
Tissue specificityExpressed in stem cells at the bottom of the crypts of the colon (at protein level). Expressed in colon adenomas and adenocarcinomas (at protein level). Expressed in brain, lung, liver, spleen, thymus, prostate, kidney, testis, heart, placenta, pancreas, small intestine, ovary, colon, skeletal muscle and hematopoietic progenitors.
PathwayProtein modification; protein ubiquitination.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in TRIM33 are a cause of thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC) [MIM:188550]. TPC is a common tumor of the thyroid that typically arises as an irregular, solid or cystic mass from otherwise normal thyroid tissue. Papillary carcinomas are malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. Note=A chromosomal aberration involving TRIM33 is found in thyroid papillary carcinomas. Translocation t(1;10)(p13;q11) with RET. The translocation generates the TRIM33/RET (PTC7) oncogene.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the TRIM/RBCC family. Contains 2 B box-type zinc fingers. Contains 1 bromo domain. Contains 1 PHD-type zinc finger. Contains 1 RING-type zinc finger.
Cellular localizationNucleus. In discrete nuclear dots resembling nuclear bodies.