The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family in mammals comprises a family of transmembrane proteins characterized by multiple copies of leucine rich repeats in the extracellular domain and IL-1 receptor motif in the cytoplasmic domain. Like its counterparts in Drosophila, TLRs signal through adaptor molecules. The TLR family is a phylogenetically conserved mediator of innate immunity that is essential for microbial recognition. Ten human homologs of TLRs (TLR1-10) have been described. TIRAP (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein) is an adaptor protein used by TLR4. Blocking TIRAP inhibits TLR4-mediated signaling events, including DC maturation and cytokine production.
Function: Adapter involved in TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK2 and TRAF-6, leading to the activation of NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, and resulting in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Positively regulates the production of TNF-alpha and interleukin-6.
Tissue specificity: Highly expressed in liver, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle and heart. Also detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lung, placenta, small intestine, thymus, colon and brain.
Post-translational modification: Phosphorylated by IRAK1 and IRAK4. Also phosphorylated by BTK.
Sequence similarities: Contains 1 TIR domain.
ab17218 at 2µg/ml staining TIRAP in human heart cells by IHC
Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-TIRAP antibody (ab17218)This image is courtesy of an Anonymous Abreview.
ab17218 staining TIRAP in a PMA-treated Human THP-1 cell by Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence. Cells were fixed in paraformaldehyde for 30 minutes and permeabilized in 0.1% Triton X-100 prior to blocking in 5% serum for 1 hour at 20°C. The primary antibody was diluted 1/200 and incubated with the sample for 1 hour at 20°C. The secondary antibody was Alexa Fluor® 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit polyclonal, diluted 1/500 (green). Other stains used were Alexa Fluor 595-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (red) and Nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33258 (blue)
Sakuma C et al. Specific binding of the WASP N-terminal domain to Btk is critical for TLR2 signaling in macrophages. Mol Immunol63:328-36 (2015).
Read more (PubMed: 25213142) »
Sakaguchi M et al. DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10) membrane adaptor associates with receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and modulates the RAGE-triggered signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. J Biol Chem289:23389-402 (2014).
Read more (PubMed: 25002577) »