The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesFlow Cyt: Use at an assay dependent dilution. Use 10ul of the suggested working dilution to label 1E6 cells or cells or 100ul whole blood. TLR4 is weakly expressed by resting cells, but is upregulated following stimulation with LPS.
Not tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionCooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by Ni(2+). These responses require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific.
Tissue specificityHighly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells.
Involvement in diseaseGenetic variation in TLR4 is associated with age-related macular degeneration type 10 (ARMD10) [MIM:611488]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the Toll-like receptor family. Contains 18 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats. Contains 1 LRRCT domain. Contains 1 TIR domain.
DomainThe TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4.
Post-translational modificationsN-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS.