Human Predicted to work with:
Mouse, Cow, Dog, Chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey
Synthetic peptide corresponding to Human TMEM173 aa 310-360. Database link: Q86WV6
WB: MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) and HepG2 (human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) whole cell lysate. IHC-P: Human breast cancer tissue. ICC/IF; HeLa (human epithelial cell line from cervix adenocarcinoma) cells.
Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid freeze / thaw cycle.
The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 21838860
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
Facilitator of innate immune signaling that promotes the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Innate immune response is triggered in response to non-CpG double-stranded DNA from viruses and bacteria delivered to the cytoplasm. Able to activate both NF-kappa-B and IRF3 transcription pathways to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent anti-viral state following expression. May be involved in translocon function, the translocon possibly being able to influence the induction of type I interferons. May be involved in transduction of apoptotic signals via its association with the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). Mediates death signaling via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.
Belongs to the TMEM173 family.
Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon MHC-II aggregation (By similarity). Phosphorylated on Ser-358 by TBK1, leading to activation and production of IFN-beta. Ubiquitinated. 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination mediated by TRIM56 at Lys-150 promotes homodimerization and recruitment of the antiviral kinase TBK1 and subsequent production of IFN-beta. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination at Lys-150 occurring after viral infection is mediated by RNF5 and leads to proteasomal degradation.
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > perinuclear region. In response to double-stranded DNA stimulation, relocalizes to perinuclear region, where the kinase TBK1 is recruited.
ICC/IF image of ab92605 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 4% PFA fixed (10 minutes) and then incubated in 1% BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3 M glycine in 0.1 % PBS-Tween for 1 hour to permeabilize the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab92605, 5 µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899 Dylight 488® goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1 hour. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1 hour. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43 µM.
Li T et al. Antitumor Activity of cGAMP via Stimulation of cGAS-cGAMP-STING-IRF3 Mediated Innate Immune Response. Sci Rep6:19049 (2016).
Read more (PubMed: 26754564) »
Panchanathan R et al. Identification of a negative feedback loop between cyclic di-GMP-induced levels of IFI16 and p202 cytosolic DNA sensors and STING. Innate ImmunN/A:N/A (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 24131791) »