The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 21838860
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use at an assay dependent concentration.
FunctionFacilitator of innate immune signaling that promotes the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta). Innate immune response is triggered in response to non-CpG double-stranded DNA from viruses and bacteria delivered to the cytoplasm. Able to activate both NF-kappa-B and IRF3 transcription pathways to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent anti-viral state following expression. May be involved in translocon function, the translocon possibly being able to influence the induction of type I interferons. May be involved in transduction of apoptotic signals via its association with the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). Mediates death signaling via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.
Tissue specificityUbiquitously expressed.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the TMEM173 family.
Post-translational modificationsPhosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon MHC-II aggregation (By similarity). Phosphorylated on Ser-358 by TBK1, leading to activation and production of IFN-beta. Ubiquitinated. 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination mediated by TRIM56 at Lys-150 promotes homodimerization and recruitment of the antiviral kinase TBK1 and subsequent production of IFN-beta. 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination at Lys-150 occurring after viral infection is mediated by RNF5 and leads to proteasomal degradation.
Cellular localizationEndoplasmic reticulum membrane. Mitochondrion outer membrane. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm > perinuclear region. In response to double-stranded DNA stimulation, relocalizes to perinuclear region, where the kinase TBK1 is recruited.
ICC/IF image of ab92605 stained HeLa cells. The cells were 4% PFA fixed (10mins) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab92605, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899 Dylight 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
References for Anti-TMEM173 antibody (ab92605)
This product has been referenced in:
Panchanathan R et al. Identification of a negative feedback loop between cyclic di-GMP-induced levels of IFI16 and p202 cytosolic DNA sensors and STING. Innate ImmunN/A:N/A (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 24131791) »
Orzalli MH et al. Nuclear interferon-inducible protein 16 promotes silencing of herpesviral and transfected DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A110:E4492-501 (2013).
Read more (PubMed: 24198334) »