FunctionE3 ubiquitin-protein ligase whose activity is dependent on E2 enzymes, UBE2D1, UBE2D2, UBE2E1 and UBE2E2. Forms a ubiquitin ligase complex in cooperation with the E2 UBE2D2 that is used not only for the ubiquitination of USP4 and IKBKB but also for its self-ubiquitination. Component of cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes such as SCF(SKP2)-like complexes. A TRIM21-containing SCF(SKP2)-like complex is shown to mediate ubiquitination of CDKN1B ('Thr-187' phosphorylated-form), thereby promoting its degradation by the proteasome. Monoubiquitinates IKBKB that will negatively regulates Tax-induced NF-kappa-B signaling. Negatively regulates IFN-beta production post-pathogen recognition by polyubiquitin-mediated degradation of IRF3. Mediates the ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of IgG1 heavy chain, which is linked to the VCP-mediated ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. Promotes IRF8 ubiquitination, which enhanced the ability of IRF8 to stimulate cytokine genes transcription in macrophages. Plays a role in the regulation of the cell cycle progression. Enhances the decapping activity of DCP2. Exists as a ribonucleoprotein particle present in all mammalian cells studied and composed of a single polypeptide and one of four small RNA molecules. At least two isoforms are present in nucleated and red blood cells, and tissue specific differences in RO/SSA proteins have been identified. The common feature of these proteins is their ability to bind HY RNAs.2.
Tissue specificityIsoforms 1 and 2 are expressed in fetal and adult heart and fetal lung.
PathwayProtein modification; protein ubiquitination.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the TRIM/RBCC family. Contains 1 B box-type zinc finger. Contains 1 B30.2/SPRY domain. Contains 1 RING-type zinc finger.
DomainThe coiled-coil is necessary for the cytoplasmic localization. The B30.2/SPRY domain is necessary for the cytoplasmic localization, the interaction with IRF3 and for the IRF3-driven interferon beta promoter activity. The RING-type zinc finger is necessary for ubiquitination and for the IRF3-driven interferon beta promoter activity. Interacts with SKP2 and CUL1 in a RING finger-independent manner.
Post-translational modificationsAutoubiquitinated; does not lead to its proteasomal degradation. Deubiquitinated by USP4; leading to its stabilization.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm > P-body. Enters the nucleus upon exposure to nitric oxide. Localizes to small dot- or rod-like structures in the cytoplasm, called cytoplasmic bodies (P-body) that are located underneath the plasma membrane and also diffusely in the cytoplasm and are highly motil in cells. Cytoplasmic bodies are located along the microtubules and do not share the same cytoplasmic bodies with TRIM5. Colocalizes with DCP2 in P-body.
SSA1 was immunoprecipitated from 1mg HeLa whole cell lysate using 10µg ab91423. 20% of the immunoprecipitate was loaded per lane, and probed with ab91423 at 1µg/ml (lane 1) or a control IgG (lane2). Detection: chemoluminescence with an exposure time of 10 seconds.
ICC/IF image of ab91423 stained HepG2 cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab91423, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899 Dylight 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
References for Anti-TRIM21 antibody (ab91423)
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