The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use a concentration of 1 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 18 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 18 kDa).
Use a concentration of 5 µg/ml.
Use at an assay dependent concentration. PubMed: 22975381
FunctionBinds to the E-box consensus sequence 5'-CANNTG-3' as a heterodimer and inhibits transcriptional activation by MYOD1, MYOG, MEF2A and MEF2C. Also represses expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFA and IL1B. Involved in postnatal glycogen storage and energy metabolism (By similarity). Inhibits the premature or ectopic differentiation of preosteoblast cells during osteogenesis, possibly by changing the internal signal transduction response of osteoblasts to external growth factors.
Tissue specificityIn the embryo, highly expressed in chondrogenic cells. In embryonic skin, expressed in the undifferentiated mesenchymal layer beneath the epidermis which later develops into the dermis. Expressed in early myeloid cells but not in lymphoid cells in the liver. Expression also detected in the secretory ependymal epithelium of the choroid plexus primordium. In the adult, expressed in secreting glandular tissues and tubules.
Involvement in diseaseDefects in TWIST2 are the cause of Setleis syndrome (SETLEISS) [MIM:227260]. A focal facial dermal dysplasia characterized by distinctive bitemporal scar-like depressions resembling forceps marks, and additional facial features, including a coarse and leonine appearance, absent eyelashes on both lids or multiple rows on the upper lids, absent Meibomian glands, slanted eyebrows, chin clefting, and hypo- or hyperpigmentation of the skin. Histologically, the bitemporal lesion is an ectodermal dysplasia with near absence of subcutaneous fat, suggesting insufficient migration of neural crest cells into the frontonasal process and the first branchial arch.
ICC/IF image of ab66031 stained MCF7 cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab66031, 5µg/ml) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/1000 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM. This antibody also gave a positive result in 100% methanol fixed (5 min) Hek293 and HepG2 cells at 5µg/ml.
Twist2 was immunoprecipitated using 0.5mg Mouse Liver tissue lysate, 5µg of Rabbit polyclonal to Twist2 and 50µl of protein G magnetic beads (+). No antibody was added to the control (-). The antibody was incubated under agitation with Protein G beads for 10min, Mouse Liver tissue lysate lysate diluted in RIPA buffer was added to each sample and incubated for a further 10min under agitation. Proteins were eluted by addition of 40µl SDS loading buffer and incubated for 10min at 70oC; 10µl of each sample was separated on a SDS PAGE gel, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, blocked with 5% BSA and probed with ab66031. Secondary: Clean-Blot IP Detection Reagent (HRP) at 1/500 dilution. Band: 18kDa; Twist2
References for Anti-Twist2 antibody (ab66031)
This product has been referenced in:
Li H et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition via GSK-3ß and ZEB2 in the BGC-823 gastric cancer cell line. Oncol Lett9:143-148 (2015).
Read more (PubMed: 25435948) »
Zheng S et al. Twist1 and Twist2 Contribute to Cytokine Downregulation following Chronic NOD2 Stimulation of Human Macrophages through the Coordinated Regulation of Transcriptional Repressors and Activators. J Immunol195:217-26 (2015).
Read more (PubMed: 26019273) »