The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use at an assay dependent dilution.
Use a concentration of 1 - 2 µg/ml.
FunctionIsoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Tissue specificityIsoform 1 is expressed predominantly in Leydig cells (at protein level). Also expressed in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney and pancreas and in a number of cancer cell lines. Isoform 4 is widely expressed with highest levels in kidney, testis, uterus, ovary, prostate, placenta and fetal liver.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. Contains 1 glutaredoxin domain.
DomainThe N-terminal glutaredoxin domain found in isoform 1 does not contain the C-P-Y-C redox-active motif normally found in glutaredoxins and has been found to be inactive in classical glutaredoxin assays.
Post-translational modificationsThe N-terminus of isoform 5 is blocked. ISGylated.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm and Cytoplasm. Nucleus.