This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Involvement in disease
Defects in TYR are the cause of albinism oculocutaneous type 1A (OCA1A) [MIM:203100]; also known as tyrosinase negative oculocutaneous albinism. An autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is absent in skin, hair, and eyes. It is characterized by complete lack of tyrosinase activity due to production of an inactive enzyme. Patients present with a life-long absence of melanin pigment after birth, and manifest increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation with predisposition to skin cancer. Visual anomalies include decreased acuity, nystagmus, strabismus and photophobia. Defects in TYR are the cause of albinism oculocutaneous type 1B (OCA1B) [MIM:606952]; also known as albinism yellow mutant type. An autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in skin, hair, and eyes. It is characterized by partial lack of tyrosinase activity. Patients have white hair at birth that rapidly turns yellow or blond. They manifest the development of minimal-to-moderate amounts of cutaneous and ocular pigment. Some patients may have with white hair in the warmer areas (scalp and axilla) and progressively darker hair in the cooler areas (extremities). This variant phenotype is due to a loss of tyrosinase activity above 35-37 degrees C.
ab170905 staining Tyrosinase in A375 (human malignant melanoma) cells by ICC/IF (Immunocytochemistry/immunofluorescence). Cells were fixed with 100% methanol and incubated with primary antibody at a dilution of 1/500. A goat anti rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488) (ab150077) was used as the secondary antibody at a dilution of 1/1000. DAPI was used as a nuclear counterstain.
Flow cytometry analysis of A375 (human malignant melanoma) cells labeling with purified ab170905 at 1/30 dilution ( 10ug/ml) (red). Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilised with 90% methanol. A Goat anti rabbit IgG (Alexa Fluor® 488)(ab150077) (1/2000 dilution) was used as the secondary antibody. Cells without incubation with primary antibody and secondary antibody (Blue) were used as unlabeled control.
Huang YC et al. Fenofibrate suppresses melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells via activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Chem Biol Interact205:157-64 (2013).
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