The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Application notesWB: Use at a concentration of 1-5 µg/ml.
This antibody has only been tested in WB against the recombinant fragment used as immunogen. We have no data on the detection of endogenous protein.
Not yet tested in other applications. Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
FunctionSerine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. May also phosphorylate SESN2 and SQSTM1 to regulate autophagy (PubMed:25040165).
Tissue specificityUbiquitously expressed. Detected in the following adult tissues: skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, brain, placenta, liver, kidney, and lung.
Sequence similaritiesBelongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. APG1/unc-51/ULK1 subfamily. Contains 1 protein kinase domain.
Post-translational modificationsAutophosphorylated. Phosphorylated under nutrient-rich conditions; dephosphorylated during starvation or following treatment with rapamycin. Under nutrient sufficiency, phosphorylated by MTOR/mTOR, disrupting the interaction with AMPK and preventing activation of ULK1 (By similarity). In response to nutrient limitation, phosphorylated and activated by AMPK, leading to activate autophagy.
Cellular localizationCytoplasm, cytosol. Preautophagosomal structure. Under starvation conditions, is localized to puncate structures primarily representing the isolation membrane that sequesters a portion of the cytoplasm resulting in the formation of an autophagosome.